German Spies are Everywhere

William Le Queux

Topic February/March 2018.  The early Legion of Frontiersmen attracted a number of men whose characters varied from the slightly to the very eccentric. One of the most eccentric of all was the novelist, journalist and writer William Le Queux. Le Queux was the leading scaremonger of a number of other writers, usually members of the Legion, who warned that nests of German spies were to be found all over the British Isles. Even though many of Le Queux’s claims of spies were ridiculous, his evidence was listened to by the sub-committee of the Committee of Imperial Defence (The National Archives file CAB 16/8). ‘The evidence which was produced left no doubt in the minds of the sub-committee that an extensive system of German espionage exists in this country, and that we have no organisation for keeping in touch with that espionage and for accurately determining its extent or objectives.’

‘That naive conclusion, which owed as much to the imaginary spies of Willam Le Queux as to the real machinations of German Intelligence led directly to the foundation of the British Secret Service.’ (“Secret Service” by Christopher Andrew p.58).

In his book Professor Andrew is quite scathing about Le Queux and his stories of spies, but, even if virtually all the stories were complete fiction, the above statement by Britain’s most noted historian of Intelligence means that Le Queux was historically important. The problem was that Le Queux, being a good storyteller, latched on grains of truth, on suspicions, on imaginations, embroidered them out of all proportion – and then believed the whole lot himself.

‘At least part of Le Queux’s secret lay in his immense clubability. He moved effortlessly around clubland and society dinners, establishing a reputation as a wit and raconteur.’ (“Secret Service” p.45).

Much of newspaper and writing circles centred around the Savage Club, whose members included many of the ‘German spy menace’ writers. Roger Pocock, the Founder of the Legion of Frontiersmen wrote in his diary how he was asked by Edgar Wallace to propose Wallace for membership of the Savage Club. Roger Pocock, himself a romantic, eagerly followed the words of the master story-spinner William Le Queux. Legion members were convinced of the German menace. The stories they told in the early Legion days of German spies – and of revolution in some far-off countries – may have owed more to fantasy than fact, but the German spy scares were believed by a considerable percentage of the British population. Le Queux’s highly successful “The Invasion of 1910” first appeared as a serial beginning in March 1906 in the “Daily Mail”. Assisted by a naval expert, H.W. Wilson and advised by the elderly Lord Roberts, Le Queux had reconnoitred much of England to discover what he thought would be likely invasion routes for the Germans. When it was presented to Lord Northcliffe he instructed that some of the routes be changed to cover areas where he considered sales of his newspaper could be boosted. Northcliffe then advertised in other newspapers the districts the Germans would be attacking the next day. On the first day of publication the “Daily Mail” sandwichboard men paraded through London streets in blue uniforms with spiked helmets. The Prime Minister was furious, telling Parliament that Le Queux was a ‘pernicious scaremonger’ and that the story was calculated to inflame and alarm. Northcliffe was more than happy as it boosted the sales of his newspapers. When it came out in book form “The Invasion of 1910” sold more than a million copies in twenty-seven languages, including German, although the Germans changed the ending to show a German victory.

The Frontiersmen featured heroically in the book ‘…that splendid corps, the Legion of Frontiersmen…’ (p.289), ‘…the daring actions of the”Frontiersmen”…’ (p.335), ‘This place was held strongly by British Infantry, many members of the Legion of Frontiersmen, – distinguished only by the little bronze badge in their buttonholes -‘ (p.359), among other mentions.

The War Office found some of the German spy stories passed to them most irritating, although Vernon Kell, who in 1909 became the head of the newly-founded Secret Service Bureau, in 1910 found the activities of the Frontiersmen of interest.

‘I saw L at the officers on his return home from the East Coast where he had been trying to get in touch with some of the Legion of Frontiersmen…I will enter them among my likely agents.’ (T.N.A. KV14).

The east coast was the home of the very active Maritime Division of the Legion and included Erskine Childers whose “Riddle of the Sands” had made such an impact, and also the influential E.G. Pretyman, M.P. who had served as a Navy Minister in the earlier Conservative government. The Maritime Section also included Linton Hope who was a highly successful yacht designer and J. St. A. Jewell who had a high reputation as a writer on sea and yachting matters. Vernon Kell also commented that:

‘The first commandant of the London Command of the Legion of Frontiersmen was almost certainly in the secret service of Germany and therefore had to be got rid of.’

De Hora

His report had an additional marginal note by some unknown officer “Who is this?”. “This” was Manoel de Hora, who was even more of a fantasist than Le Queux and has been the subject of a biography by Bruce G. Fuller.**

There is no doubt that most Frontiersmen in Britain were convinced by the stories of German spies. In his 1931 “Chorus to Adventurers” Roger Pocock tells many stories based on the Le Queux scare stories and others that were circulating, most of which sound ridiculous to modern ears but did not do so then when the threat of German military aggression was generally believed.

‘There was to be a German feint upon Essex, made in the hope of containing our Southern Command on Epping Forest for the defence of London. On the details of this operation Lord Roberts gave three month’s instruction to a member of the Legion, Mr. William le Queux, and the result was a forecast novel in the “Daily Mail”. (Chorus to Adventurers, p.63).

Forecast novel it may have been, but Le Queux steadily began to believe that his own predictions were based on facts.

Even the great Baden-Powell was convinced that the Germans were planning to invade:

‘When the German invasion scare was at its height in Britain between 1906 and 1910, Baden-Powell was sold a bogus invasion plan by an enterprising group of German-American forgers who had set up a ‘spy-bureau’ in Belgium. They contrived to sell similar material to Major-General J.S. Ewart, the Director of Military Operations, and to William Le Queux, the espionage writer.’ (Baden-Powell, by Tim Jeal, p.153).

1 19060730 Invasion advert

Convinced by the bogus invasion plans he had purchased, Baden-Powell gave a series of very successful lantern lectures to fellow officers on how 90,000 German troops would land in Yorkshire once the Straits of Dover were blocked by mines and submarines. Reports about his talks inevitably found their way into the newspapers. Members of the Legion other than Le Queux were also reporting on German spies. Believing both the stories of Le Queux and the highly-respected Baden-Powell they began adding their own accounts:

‘Each district upon the eastern slope of Britain was allotted to one German officers, who spent his furlough there…He knew…every detail of military interest. German officers were not welcomed at country houses, or popular at inns. They had a club on the east side of Regent Street, and large numbers frequented an hotel at Ventnor [Isle of Wight]. Along our coasts an astonishing number of respectable “Swiss” residents had houses overlooking the sea…(Chorus to Adventurers, p.64).

In November 1908 a question was raised in the House of Commons if a ‘party of officers from the Royal Naval College in the course of reconnaissance in the Isle of Wight recently found German officers engaged in selecting suitable places for the landing of troops.’

On 2nd February 1909 the “Sheffield Daily Telegraph” reported that: ‘a party of foreigners including three Germans made a systemic photographic survey of the coast between the Tyne and the Tees.’

In his 1909 diary, Roger Pocock wrote about suspicious activities that had come to his own notice:

‘4 m[iles] inland from either Stranraer or Port Patrick private firm have meadows, this is a blind. German expert Depot, 2 Zeppelin ships – being tested in suitable place hilly. For 3 years a wooden airship has been building and testing in a factory at Friern Barnet nr. London. Germans opp[osite] an Institute called the Freehold.’ ***

After Roger Pocock had all official position in the Legion withdrawn from him in 1909 even the London Commandant (later Chief Executive Officer) Lt. Col. D.P. Driscoll made a highly extravagant claim about the number of German spies in Britain. From 1910 onwards the Legion concentrated on preparing for the war with Germany that they were convinced would come.

We may find many of these spy scares bordering on the ridiculous, but the Edwardian reader of the populist newspapers such as the “Daily Mail” and the “Daily Express” (edited by another Frontiersman, R.D. Blumenfeld) was genuinely scared of a German invasion. William Le Queux had touched a raw nerve and picked up and played on the mood of the British public. We may wonder how much of his writing ever came to be believed, but those were different days and we have to return to Christopher Andrew’s comment that William Le Queux was a catalyst – even a major cause – of the setting up of M.I.5.

And you thought that “Fake News” was a recent invention!

** Since the death of Bruce Fuller, the handling of his biography of de Hora has passed to his research associate Susan Hora.  Please contact us if you require contact details.

*** Quotation by kind permission of the Roger Pocock archive at the Bruce Peel Library and Archives, University of Alberta.

More on the Frontiersmen and Intelligence and German spies can be seen in Professor John Ellis’ account of Owen Vaughan, General Gordon’s “magic ring” and the Legion motto in:

© Copyright Geoffrey A. Pocock. All rights reserved. This article may not be reproduced in any form, in part or in full, without prior permission.

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The Inspirational F.C.Selous.

Official inspection of Frontiersmen London 1914

Surprising Snippets 6: Let us face it, biographies can be boring. Especially when the biographer relies on his academic reputation and merely distils the work of previous biographers. The subject needs to be fully understood and the writer needs to dig deep to find what forgotten friends of that person thought and knew. Frederick Selous’ life as an officer of 25th Bn Royal Fusiliers (Frontiersmen) is a case in point. In the “Bulawayo Chronicle” in 1937 Vahd W. (Bill) Tobin told us more about Selous in a few paragraphs than any recent biographer has achieved. Bill Tobin has already featured in the story of Swaythling Remounts:

Here is his view of F.C. Selous as an officer and very much a gentleman:

The G.O.C. London Division passed slowly down the ranks of a great body of men drawn up on the Horse Guards Whitehall. It must have been a novel inspection for one even of his long military experience; for here, he knew, were men forgathered from almost every part of the globe, men whose ages ranged from 25 to 50, and more; yet all, irrespective of their age, destined for active service overseas.

Some of these men attired in civilian clothes, noticeably of Colonial cut and style; the rest, however, in parade kit of a picturesque, not to say strikingly unorthodox pattern, comprising broad Stetson hat, brown silk neckerchief, blue shirt-tunic emblazoned with shoulder chains, cord breeches, belted and holstered, and spurred riding boots.

Campaign medals glittered on the breasts of a lot of these men, before many of whom the General passed with either a nod of recognition of their decorations, or to exchange a few words with the wearers of them.

Slowly he passed along; until at the whispered suggestion of the unit Commander, he stopped squarely opposite an unassuming looking, well set-up, middle-aged man in civilian rig. Introduced, the General instantly shook his hand and stayed to chat with him for several minutes, with the Staff gathered round to listen.

And that was way back in February, 1915. The parade referred to was a muster of several hundred members of the Legion of Frontiersmen. The middle-aged man with whom the G.O.C. shook hands and chatted was Frontiersman F.C.Selous.

It was Legion Commandant. Colonel “Jerry” Driscoll (Driscoll o’ the fighting scouts) who, shortly afterwards, introduce me to Selous, thereby achieving for me a long hoped-for ambition. By then Selous had been promoted Lieutenant, a rank he accepted with characteristic reluctance, averring that there were many in the Legion better qualified than he for commissioned status. He would have been content to remain a simple private, just so long as he once more was in his country’s service.

For up till a week before the parade I mention, he had offered his services to the War Office over and over again, only to be rejected each time as too old for military duties in the field. In vain, it appears, had he begged the officials to consider his usefulness, no matter in what capacity, on any of the fighting fronts of Africa. But all in vain. To the official mind (at that time) the full scale of his unrivalled knowledge and experience of Africa, East, West, Central and South, was inexorably counter-weighed by his age.

Selous, however, had been a member of the Legion of Frontiersmen almost from its inception. So when, in that month of February, the remnant of the Legion was accepted for service, after hundreds of the organisation, tired of waiting for official recognition, had drifted into the new armies – Selous automatically enrolled with it, age objection no longer held, for the unit had been accepted en bloc, subject only to its members passing medical examination. And Selous, as all knew him anticipated, passed as one of the fittest men. He was then 63.

To any student of human nature, to anyone who has knocked about the world, and learned thereby to judge men, Selous, at very first glance, stood revealed for what he was, a man. His serene grey eyes mirrored a nature at once gentle, kindly, lovable. One took to him instantly, and felt the urge to know him, to go on knowing him, and, perhaps, become in time esteemed by him. One just felt the better for knowing him, for being with him if only for a little while. That was how I felt about him as, I know, did others who claimed his acquaintance.

There was little opportunity to talk with Selous after my introduction to him in Legion headquarters, in Adam Street, Strand. For he was surrounded by old friends, to whose talk he was listening quietly, this unassuming man with the pleasant, kindly smile. He left after a while on some military errand and the room seemed empty without him. Not that he had dominated it. One was just subtly, pleasantly aware of his presence. That was the magnetism of him; of Selous the man – of his very name in fact.

It was the last I ever saw of him.

If this is the impression Selous made on Tobin, it is understandable how in East Africa “…the word that their great hero had been killed soon spread round the Frontiersmen and they were so maddened that they managed to take the strong German positions and drive the enemy back”. (One Hundred Years of the Legion of Frontiersmen, p.92). It is quite likely that this resulted in the Royal Fusiliers being awarded the Battle Honour “Behobeho”. Driscoll already had his full complement of officers so could not find a place for Tobin who was commissioned into Winston Churchill’s old regiment, the Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars. We hope to tell you more about Bill Tobin in the future.

© Copyright Geoffrey A. Pocock. All rights reserved. This article may not be reproduced in any form, in part or in full, without prior permission.

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Not All Uniforms and Parades

Babs Stoneham camp c.1931

Surprising Snippets 5: Snippets found in Frontiersmen magazines. 

Charles Stoneham had served as a sergeant in the 25th Bn. Royal Fusiliers (Frontiersmen) in East Africa and was the author of a number of books on life in Kenya. This is from the November 1931 Frontiersmen magazine:

Life in a quiet little Kentish town is too dangerous and too strenuous for Mrs. C.T. Stoneham, the wife of a big-game hunter. Dodging motor cars in rural byways has got on her nerves. She cannot sleep because of the incessant honk of their horns. So she is quitting it all for a tent in the East African jungle, where man-eating beasts will be her neighbours and their roaring her nightly serenade. Mrs. Stoneham has lived a life that many a woman of spirit must envy. She once had for a pet a man-eating lion that killed 360 people. She met unarmed a lion face to face at a 10ft. range, and has been charged by angry buffaloes and truculent rhinoceroses…

Quite an awesome lady to have as your wife on the frontiers of civilisation! The photograph of Mrs “Babs” Stoneham is from C.T. Stoneham’s 1932 book “Wanderings in Wild Africa.” In this book, and in several of his others, there are interesting chapters about his experiences with the Frontiersmen in East Africa during the First War.

J. Anderson Neary, who for many years was the lynch-pin of the Frontiersmen in Egypt and who regularly contributed tales to the magazines, wrote this, which was published in May 1929:

Two real old men have recently been discovered in Egypt. One is 120 and the other 155. The latter remembers Napoleon when in Egypt, has a son aged 70, has had two wives, eats two pounds of meat or a whole chicken at one meal and is fond of smoking.

The late 1920s and the early 1930s were hard times, and the Legion of Frontiersmen did its best to find jobs for the many unemployed Frontiersmen. Although not applicable to those currently seeking work, out of interest the March 1929 magazine published an extract from an un-named farmers’ magazine of Victorian times:

Wanted, for a sober family, a man of light weight, who fears the Lord and can drive a pair of horses. He must occasionally wait at table, join household prayers, look after the horses, read a chapter of the Bible. He must, God willing, rise at seven in the morning, and obey his master and mistress in all lawful commands. If he can dress hair, sing Psalms, and play at cribbage, the more agreeable. N.B. – He must not be familiar with the maid servants, lest the flesh should rebel against the spirit, and he should be induced to walk in the thorny paths of the wicked. Wages, fifteen guineas a year.

Even in the fifty or so years between this advertisement being placed and the depression years around 1929, requirements for staff had changed remarkably.

© Copyright Geoffrey A. Pocock. All rights reserved. This article may not be reproduced in any form, in part or in full, without prior permission.

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An Extraordinary Occasion

Camp Fire by Koekkoek

Topic December 2017 / January 2018.  To perform a major event in one of London’s Royal parks would be an achievement for any organisation; for an organisation that was less than two years old to find the numbers to produce a whole evening’s show in aid of Legion funds and to find this reported in newspapers all round Britain has to be absolutely extraordinary. The size and variety of the display put on by volunteers of the infant Legion of Frontiersmen on Empire Day 1907 at what was then the Royal Botanic Gardens in Regent’s Park was an achievement that, other than an occasional photograph, has never been properly celebrated. Here we are able to tell the story and to reproduce pictures from the occasion that have not been seen for many years. This was not the first fète the Legion hosted at Regent’s Park in aid of funds. In July 1906 a smaller show was produced with a small bivouac display and a concert organised by Lena Ashwell. This featured scenes from “A Midsummer Night’s Dream” plus a conjurer, Charles Bertram, also well-known stars such as Constance Collier and Albert Chevalier. Constance Collier’s claim to modern fame is that she was the Hollywood drama coach to Marilyn Monroe. The success of this fète encouraged the Frontiersmen to produce something more ambitious for 1907.

Frontiersmen as Musketeers The Sphere

Fortunately the weather was also kind for the Empire Day 1907 event. After a wet morning the weather improved dramatically to produce a perfect May afternoon and evening. The gardens were illuminated by electric lights and Chinese lanterns. The band of the Coldstream Guards played on one of the lawns. There were many of the old style “fun of the fair” side-shows such as coconut shies, a “sorceress” telling fortunes, shooting galleries plus a display of the skills of jiu-jitsu by the London School of that art. Roger Pocock’s sister, the well-known actress Lena Ashwell, had organised a concert and dramatic entertainment in the conservatory pavilion featuring many well-known names from the London Stage. No wonder the event was a complete sell-out. The one side-show which brought favourable comments from every newspaper and was a sensation with the audience was a series of staged fights showing duelling from all ages from Roman times onwards. This was organised by two Legion officers, Captain Alfred Hutton and Captain Graham Hope. Hutton’s books on the sword and swordsmanship are still in print today. As can be seen from the illustrations, the duellists all wore the costume of the particular age. They began with Roman gladiators and continued with fights at quarterstaff “the favourite weapon of the English peasantry from early times”.¹ Captain Graham Hope and Legion founder-member Robert A. Smith fought a duel with two-handed swords dressed in suits of armour reputed to weight over 70 lb. each. A bout with 15th century sword and buckler and a fight with the smallsword of the seventeenth century followed. In addition a splendidly-costumed Smith together with three others re-enacted the fight between the Musketeers and Richelieu’s Cardinal’s Guard as described in Dumas’ “The Three Musketeers”.

The stage was a lawn partly surrounded by trees and bushes, through which the duellists made artistically natural entrances. The stage management was excellent, and the whole effect was most ably and skilfully carried out. The difficulty of disposing of the dead men was overcome by the employment of carriers garbed as Brethren of the Misericordia, who bore away the corpses. ²

Hutton and Smith in armour Penny Illustrated

The final battle was between a modern Edwardian infantryman with bayonet on his rifle fighting an accurately-costumed Pathan with his weapon and shield.

The entertainment was opened by the then Commandant-General, Sir Henry Seton-Karr, C.M.G.. Frontiersmen travelled to take part from Liverpool, Cambridge, York, Portsmouth and Bristol. It is often thought that all Frontiersmen from the early days were horse-mounted, but in fact almost every Frontiersmen Squadron had a Troop of cyclists as they believed that sometimes the bicycle held advantages over the horse. Two Troopers from Portsmouth, Reynolds and Gibson, cycled from Portsmouth to London carrying a despatch for Lord Lonsdale, returning after the conclusion of the event: a ride of 180 miles in twenty-four hours. This was some achievement considering the roads, bicycles and tyres of the time.

At ten o’clock the climax of the evening was a uniformed display by one hundred and fifty members of the London Command under Lt.Col. D.P. Driscoll. The arena showed the Frontiersmen in bivouac cooking supper round a camp fire with their horses picketed behind the trees. During the meal a number of songs were called for and performed for the visitors and guests who formed a large semi-circle. At the sound of distant firing, the Frontiersmen sprang to their horses and rode off to return again shortly, apparently victorious. The whole evening was agreed to have been a tremendous success and magnificent publicity for the Legion.

It has seldom been discussed how many men in Edwardian Britain, and particularly living in the London area, had spent time working, or had maybe fought, on the frontiers of what was considered the civilised world. Not only had their adventures in distant places made a deep impression on them, but they had obviously enjoyed them. The Legion of Frontiersmen gave them an opportunity to join up with other men who had experienced life and action in the wilder parts of what was then an exciting and often unknown world, so they flocked to enlist in the Legion. These men were also very patriotic and agreed with the principles of the Legion that they should be willing to give of their many and varied skills to their country and, if necessary, fight for it.

H.W. Koekkoek was a highly talented artist and the expressions he captured on the faces of the men who took part in the “Bivouac” at Regent’s Park show that this young and growing organisation had filled a gap in their lives, which it also did to the social and military history of the English-speaking world.

¹ “Daily Telegraph” May 21 1907.
² “Army and Navy Gazette” June 1 1907.

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The Origins of the Idea

Prince of Wales inspectsSurprising Snippets 4.  In several topic pages we have pointed out how often between the wars the Frontiersmen were called upon as either Guards of Honour or escorts to members of the British Royal family:

We have suggested that this dated back to around 1923 when Major-General Lord Loch agreed to become President of the Legion. A recently discovered newspaper cutting suggests that the idea of using the Legion to support royalty might go back to 1919. The Bolshevik Revolution and the assassination of the Russian royal family – all related to British royalty – sent out shock waves. The upper and middle classes were terrified that Red Revolution might spread to Britain. Strikes became widespread and the British Labour Party supported the servicemen, whose unrest at times turned into mutiny, and the badly-underpaid Metropolitan Police who went on strike in 1918 and in 1919. It is not possible to discuss fully here the discontent of the working classes in the period after the First War, but this is covered in many books. It was mainly the landed gentry and the upper classes who were so frightened by the thought of Bolshevism and revolution occurring in Britain, overturning the status quo and doing away with British Royalty. An interview with Lt. Col. Driscoll in an evening paper “The Globe” must certainly have caught their attention.

T.A.Macdonald was later to interview Driscoll about the bad way his battalion had been treated in East Africa, but first of all Macdonald was despatched by his editor, who had heard that Driscoll was “resuscitating” the Legion of Frontiersmen. Driscoll’s response, reported on page 2 of the 23rd April issue was a furious one:

All that has happened is that its members have been scattered and although most of us have managed all through the war to keep in touch with each other to some extent, it is only now that the struggle is over that we can really get together again and, resuming our activities as a body, can prepare for future eventualities…The same as they have been all through the ages – the forces of evil against which all honest and loyal men must fight if the world is to be kept clean and the Empire safe…

The League of Nations will no more obviate the necessity for going in for extensive military training than Christian Science will do away with the surgeon’s need of a knife. The sentimental trash which is being talked about disarming threatens to ruin the virility of this country and to destroy its power as a champion of justice. I assure you that Pacifism and Leagueism lead to no utopia. To get to Utopia you must travel in a tank.

But it is not only the possibility of trouble from without that the Legion is preparing for…There is the more dangerous possibility of trouble within. In these days when Bolshevism and advanced Socialism are eating away at the very roots of our national life there is a great need for clean-minded men to rally together…

The Legion of Frontiersmen will stand against Bolshevism to a man. We are for the Throne and the flag with no side issues. And I can tell you that there is not one of our members, from Lord Cardross, Lord Calthorpe, and Lord Powerscourt down to the last-joined recruit who is not heart and soul in sympathy with these ideals… [emphasis added]

As I withdrew I saw the other callers. There were two Canadians, three New Zealanders, one Australian, and two demobilised Imperials, each wearing the badge of the Legion. Every one of them was a soldierly, strong-built, and clear-eyed Briton. If these are fair samples of the 10,000 members, I thought, I should hardly care to be a Bolshevik when the Legion gets busy.

his interview was the closest Driscoll and the Legion ever came to being political, but he only spoke the thoughts of many deeply alarmed men of his type and generation. We can only produce a mass of circumstantial evidence, as any feelings that here was a trained body of men who publicly supported King and Empire and would rally to support the King in the event of any revolutionary actions against him would not have been put in writing. Driscoll’s views and his Frontiersmen would have been discussed in the London Clubs over brandy and cigars by men of influence. Sadly, the papers of Major-General Lord Loch lodged in the Scottish Record Office and his Army service papers at the Imperial War Museum exclude his Frontiersmen papers. The family suffered tragedies,during which his son wrote to us that there were files of Frontiersmen papers somewhere in his garage. These appear to have been discarded at some stage, his son and both grandsons are dead, and the Peerage is now extinct, so what was likely the main source of written evidence is lost. The above interview is just one more pointer to perhaps why the Frontiersmen were often around when Royalty appeared in public.

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An Unusual Method of Self-Defence

bxp22839hSurprising Snippets 3.  In its early days the London Command of the Legion of Frontiersmen had a number of acclaimed and highly-skilled swordsmen among its ranks. One of these was Capt. Graham Hope who wrote an article in 1907 for the magazine of the Northern Command:

The large majority of us mercifully pass our lives without ever undergoing the necessity of defending them, and the number of those who have to go through even the mildest of “scrapes” is very small…

Captain Hope’s suggestion for the most suitable article for the Edwardian gentleman’s defence against any cut-throat, footpad or robber was a surprising one:

Probably no item of everyday equipment seems so essentially peaceful as an umbrella…

Some of Hope’s instructions on the way to utilise an umbrella against an attacker are very violent and, if followed to the letter, would result in severe injury – or worse – to the assailant. He does suggest one less violent defence:

…A safer place still, if you can make sure of hitting it [with the point], is the “mark”, i.e. about the middle of the waistcoat, or where that would be if he had one. And as regards defence, pure and simple, though an umbrella snaps easily when used for striking, it has great resisting power against a blow aimed against yourself, as the ribs and covering form a cushion which effectively breaks the force of an attack…

Hope then goes on to explain how an overcoat can be used as an additional form of defence.

I doubt it would be wise to make the London Police aware of Hope’s full and detailed article on the use of the umbrella and how it could be lethal. The Police might then decide to arrest every bowler-hatted City gentleman carrying an umbrella for being in possession of an offensive weapon!

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The Naval Frontiersmen Who Fought on Land

Armoured Train

Topic October / November 2017.  It has always been something of a puzzle as to what happened to the men of the famous Manchester Troop of the Legion who served with the 3rd Belgian Lancers after the “British Colonial Horse” was disbanded. Any research has not been assisted by the fact that most of the men’s surnames were far from uncommon. We do know that Robin Everingham was wounded at the Battle of the Yser. On recovery from his wounds he joined the Welsh Horse which, incidentally, was formed by a Frontiersman.¹ He fought at Gallipoli where he was killed by a sniper on 10th December 1915.² Bertram Davisson was commissioned in the Royal Garrison Artillery and survived the War, but not for long. He was married at the beginning of the War and no doubt his wife was relieved that he was one of those who came through it without serious injury. Just before the Armistice he was gassed and with damaged lungs he was one of the many who succumbed to the great influenza epidemic, which killed him leaving his young wife as yet another grieving widow. Charles Edward Critchlow was commissioned in the Manchester Regiment. He was killed on the first day of the second Battle of Passchendaele, 26th October 1917. He was one of seven officers of his battalion killed that day. His remains were never found. He was probably one of many whose bodies sank into the awful mud. He is remembered at the Tyne Cot Memorial in Belgium. He never got to marry his sweetheart. All he could do was to mention her in his will and leave her also grieving.

Royal Naval Division

We have known for some time that Capt. Henry (Harry) Nowell who commanded the B.C.H. afterwards joined the Royal Naval Division where he served as an officer in the Drake Battalion. Another of the men, Thomas B. Balliol Lamb also served in the Royal Naval Division, but in his case initially with the armoured trains. The Royal Naval Division were in a good position to recruit the men of the Manchester Troop as they were fighting in Belgium at the time. As to the armoured trains:

Since Lord Fisher invented the first modern armoured train in the campaign against Arabic Pasha, British naval men had specialized in this instrument of warfare. In Flanders they drove to the assistance of Belgian, French and British troops wherever there was a track available for their queerly coloured armoured locomotives and tracks. A British naval officer usually commanded, with expert gunners and Belgian sharpshooters on the train.³

The camouflaged trains were held, manned, under steam, and with guns loaded a few miles away from any action. Those unexpected guns arriving on rails silenced many an enemy battery and the trains had passed before the Germans could get their range. The armoured trains suffered virtually no casualties.

It is thought that other members of the Manchester Troop also other Frontiersmen joined the Royal Naval Division. Why was that?

Another type of new army officer was, I believe, more fully represented in the Naval Division than elsewhere: the man who had knocked about and seen life in the raw, planted tea in Ceylon, and daggers in recalcitrant cannibals, built bridges in India, and blown them up in South America. This kind of officer was apt to be unduly affronted by the luxury of a sleeping bag, or the elaborate fittings of a dug-out.⁴

And not necessarily just officers. The Royal Naval Division was very different to the army. It was formed to utilise the reserve Naval men who could well have been stokers or working as Tyneside miners. The R.N.D. insisted on being Royal Navy with Navy ranks, terms and traditions, also:

…there was no false barrier created between the officer and the N.C.O.. Each knew exactly what the other had learnt in order to qualify for his position, and each, in this way, got confidence in himself and the other.⁵

Sounds very like the Frontiersmen.

Walter Kilroy Harris

One such Frontiersman who gravitated to the Royal Naval Division was Australian Walter Kilroy Harris. As with many Frontiersmen, some of his peacetime exploits cannot be verified. From 1912-1913, Kilroy Harris was believed to have been working as a journalist in England, and was also affiliated with the Australian government’s immigration office. Harris received a Legion commission as a captain in the Australian Command of the Legion of Frontiersmen. His popular 1913 book “Outback in Australia” was re-printed several times. It tells of his journeys across that vast land. His travels included a ride of 800 miles on horseback from Sydney to Brisbane; a cattle-droving trip of 1700 miles; a journey of 2400 miles in a one horse sulky from Sydney to Adelaide and back; and a drive of over 2000 miles from Sydney to Broken Hill and back. He became the youngest Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. In December 1914 he was on his way from Australia to report in to Legion headquarters in London when, according to him, he was asked to remain in San Francisco to carry out secret work for the War Office and then carry despatches across America to Washington. We say “according to him” as we will later discover that, although his bravery was without question, his claims were not always to be trusted. He was no different in that respect to many a Frontiersman. On arriving in England he joined King Edward’s Horse, another natural destination for Frontiersmen, but within ten days he was granted a commission in the Drake Battalion of the Royal Naval Division and sent to their training depot at Crystal Palace, London.

Outback in Australia

The Crystal Palace depot had been formed in mid-September [1914] to take the flood of recruits intended for the Army but for whom no place could be found, and it had as its nucleus of senior officers a number of R.N.V.R. Captains and Commanders, whose seniority, in age and infirmities, precluded them from service elsewhere, or, in effect, from any service at all…

…the regular service element [in training] was provided by the Royal Marines, who combined very great efficiency with the more free and easy manners of the Ward Room. They were, of course, used to serving with officers and men who did not belong to their Corps, and were not shocked into defensive silence by the spectacle of people behaving “differently”…the strength of the Division lay in the fact that we had no barrack-square training to drill us into conventional shapes. By the necessity of the case we had to be taught primarily to teach others.⁶

All ideal for the views and ethics of a Frontiersman.

Walter Kilroy Harris was a very brave and effective officer. He is believed to have been one of only three men to win the D.S.O. as well as the Military Cross three times.

“Captain Harris was decorated with the Military Cross for his services at Beaucourt-sur- Ancre in November 1916 “for conspicuous gallantry in action. He led a raid against an enemy machine-gun with great gallantry, capturing the gun and turning it on an enemy. Later, he led a small bombing party, and was instrumental in capturing 102 prisoners.” The official account of the award of the first bar to the M.C., which was earned at Gavrelle, near Arras, is as follows: “For conspicuous gallantry during operations. Owing to the enemy’s wire being very thick the situation during an advance became critical and heavy casualties were occurring in his company. With great bravery he kept cheering his men on, and when [they were] through the wire organized bombing parties to protect the flanks. His conduct throughout was magnificent.” The second bar to his M.C. was for work at Passchendaele, Belgium, “for conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. His daring reconnaissance and thorough preparations contributed largely to the success of night operations, resulting in the capture of two enemy posts and three machine guns. By his daring and initiative he was the means of establishing our line on a commanding position.” The D.S.O. was awarded for operations near Cambrai, for conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. When the enemy attacked under intense bombardment and captured his trench, he directed repeated bombing attacks until he had regained half the trench and established a block, which was hotly contested all day. Towards evening he led a bombing attack along both sides of the trench, which regained the whole position and resulted in the capture of five enemy machine-guns. Throughout the day he led his company with great courage and determination under heavy fire, and set them a magnificent example. It is entirely due to his efforts that the position was re-established.” ⁷

He was wounded on four separate occasions (three times slightly wounded, remained at duty), and was once slightly gassed. His last wound, a bullet in the head, rendered him temporarily unfit for active service. Towards the end of the War he was sent over to America on special lecturing duties. This is another small puzzle. He was not the only British officer given those duties. The War Office was keen to send recovering officers to the U.S.A. on what was basically a propaganda mission. One R.N.D. officer who applied but was not successful was Douglas F. Jerrold (1893-1964). Jerrold wrote the official history of the Royal Naval Division in the Great War. Other than that work, Jerrold’s writings are ignored by most academics as his political views were very right-wing. He was a devout Catholic and also a supporter of Franco and one of the leaders of the expedition to bring Franco back from exile, in which he involved Hugh Pollard – see: Tasting Adventure and Revolution for details. Although he was politically very much a right-wing Tory, Jerrold held a poor opinion of the inhabitants of the War Office and the “Colonel Blimp” types often commanding Divisions and Corps in the Army.⁸ He was friends with several Frontiersmen, notably Hugh Pollard, but never joined the Legion. His views and interests were too political.

The request for officers for America stipulated that nobody under the rank of captain could apply. Jerrold held the rank of lieutenant R.N.V.R., which was the equivalent rank to captain in the Army.

“Your name?

I gave it.

Your rank?


(Explosion during the course of which the Army Order was held up to my nose). Can’t you read?

A little, sir. (This was, of course, a tactical blunder but irresistible).

I don’t understand you. Are you, or are you not, a captain?

Not an army captain, sir

Very well, then, are you a captain in the navy?

No, Sir.

(Triumphantly, but still gallantly), That’s what I’ve been trying to explain to you. You’re not a captain at all and not eligible for this appointment.⁹

In spite of Jerrold attempting to explain equivalent ranks, the desk officer would not budge. The order said “captains” and he could not budge from that. Walter Kilroy Harris was also a lieutenant, R.N.V.R., but he held the Legion of Frontiersmen rank of captain, so he may well have used that rank to satisfy the needs of the official order and the desk-bound senior officer carrying out interviews.

On returning to Australia after the war, Harris leased a parcel of land from the Australian Settlement Board. Australia was not the only country to offer land to returned soldiers. Canada had a similar scheme and we know that Fort Scott in Alberta had originally been soldier settlement land, but unsuitable to farm profitably. Harris was to show that although he had been a brave soldier and a successful officer like a number of Frontiersmen he was not averse to making a few dollars by law-breaking.

“Harris treated Soldier Settlement as his own cash creation scheme. Before breaking the lease, Captain Harris sold, without permission from the Department, a mare, dray, and harness. The purchaser, Mr. Gorman, claimed he paid Harris £20 cash, and had thrown ‘a cow and calf, valued at £10’ into the bargain. And that was not the worst of it: ‘It would appear that Harris, not content with having fraudently [sic] used the £20 in cash, produced a receipt for one Jersey cow and calf at £10, and sought to obtain payment thereof.’ Keen to make good its losses, the Lands Department arranged for the sale of Harris’ property. Harris challenged the legality of the auction, disputed the amount of his indebtedness to the Department then booked his passage for the United States to give a lecture tour. Captain Harris appears to have found his war record as saleable as the Department’s stock.

An article from the Illustrated Tasmanian Mail described him as the ‘founder of the America-Australian Bureau, a soldier whose gallantry in the field of battle earned for him both the D.S.O. and the M.C….the right type of Australian to engage in propaganda work in the U.S.A.’ The America-Australian Bureau (one of several grandiose initiatives Harris was involved in) was ostensibly founded for the purpose of ‘boosting Australia’. Its more immediate purpose was to boost Captain Harris; within a week of opening for business, Harris had approached all the State governments for a subsidy of £50.

Harris was arrested and gaoled before he filed for bankruptcy. He then ‘escaped’ to Ohio.

Harris may have been a war hero, but he was also a fraud and a braggart.

The A.I.F. had more than its fair share of criminals, adventurers and wasters…” 10

Kilroy Harris travelled the United States being paid very well for giving lectures on his wartime and travel adventures. Eventually he settled entirely in America and his “Radio Travel Talks” were very popular on early American radio programmes. This set something of a trend in travel talks on radio. He wrote regularly to the “Frontiersman” magazine which reported on his activities. We saw in the previous topic page how Percy Escott North continued that trend of travel talks on radio.

There is no doubt that Walter Kilroy Harris was a very brave man but, like plenty more of the early Frontiersmen he had his share of character failings.

That makes him all the more more interesting to us!

¹ see:

² Everingham is listed in de Ruvigny’s Roll of Honour. His name also appears on the Gallipoli Roll of Honour of the 1/1st Welsh Horse in the Welch Regt. museum.

³ Sir J.A. Hammerton: “A Popular History of the Great War, Volume 1” (The Fleetway House, n.d. c.1934) pages 496-7.

⁴ Douglas Jerrold: “The Royal Naval Division” (Hutchinson, 1923) p.56 (the reminiscences of Hugh Lunn).

⁵ Jerrold: “Royal Naval Division”, p.44.

⁶ Douglas Jerrold: “Georgian Adventure” (Collins, 1937) p.110.

⁷ Unidentified New Zealand newspaper cutting 13 June 1918 by “Frontiersman” (probably Ernest d’Esterre), located by B.W. (Will) Shandro, Canadian historian, in F.V. Longstaff scrapbook files: British Columbia Museum, Victoria, B.C..

⁸ See: Jerrold: “Georgian Adventure, pages 121-124 and 206-207.

⁹ Jerrold: “Georgian Adventure” p.208.

10 The Last Battle: Soldier Settlement in Australia 1916-39, Bruce Scales and Melanie Oppenheimer, (Cambridge University Press 2016), pages 41-42.

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